I started this action research to find the results of flipping the classroom would have improving the student’s ability to problem solve in the histology laboratory. The purpose of the study is multi fold, overall the innovation plan was to increase the student’s ability to work through problems they encounter in the laboratory, that would ultimately culminate into better Board of Registry Certification Exam outcomes, and if those results are favorable enough to warrant implementing this plan.
The fundamental research question was “Can Flipping the classroom improve the student’s ability to problem solve in the histology laboratory?” The fundamental hope was to find positive results from other instructors at the collegiate level have had flipping the classroom.
The next question was to find the most appropriate type of data to collect, Qualitative, quantitative, or both and why would that choice be the best for this project. Researching this topic resulted in the decision to use both types of research collection methods, qualitative in that I may not be able to find exact research that fits my situation. The general topic of flipping the classroom has plenty of data available but I am not going to find how it worked in a histology class with troubleshooting special stains. Qualitative research because, as I mentioned, there is plenty of research that has been performed on flipping the classroom and its successes and failures. Collection of this data is arranged in the Literature Review seen here.
The research participants or students as I call them go through the Baptist Health College histology program. It is a one year, four days a week, six to eight hour days. I have a maximum of six students for the entire year. The innovation plan will be implemented in the last 11 weeks of school. This is the review time of the year for them and the time that the students need to pull of the information they have learned from the books and clinicals from the entire year. They will need to use this knowledge they have gathered to solve the problems they could encounter on the job. Implementing this plan to flip the classroom will hopefully improve the student’s ability to problem to solve.
Once the plan is put into motion the data will have to be measured. As mentioned previously implementation of this plan will take place in the final 11 weeks of the histology program and each week a new subject is reviewed. The students will have multiple problem scenarios from the laboratory to address in class and an exam each week. The students will also take three MOC exams comparable to their registry exam in the last half of the 11 weeks. The end of the 11 week review time the students will take a comprehensive final to graduate. After graduating the students will take their American Society of Clinical Pathology Board of Registry Exam. All of these exams are problem solving based exam, so my goal is to see an increase in their score i.e. their ability to problem solve. I will measure against previous years student results.
When the results are collected they will be analyzing by measuring against the previous years students to see if there is improvements. The results are also scored and recorded in the gradebook. The student’s scores will be shared in the outcomes that are posted in the schools viewbook. These results are reported to the schools accrediting bodies: Arkansas Department of Higher Education, Accrediting Bureau or Health Education Schools, the National Accrediting Agency for Clinical Laboratory Science, and the American Society of Clinical Pathologist. The results are also shared and analyzed by the programs advisory board in the yearly meeting.
This is the timeline I will use to organize and utilize the data from this research plan to implement the innovation plan to flip the histology classroom.
- Present Innovation Plan August 2017
a. Make corrections or additions to plan
b. Submit final draft
c. Receive approval to move forward October 2017
- Planning integration of technology October 2017
a. Work with IT to load Poll Everywhere software
onto class computer
3. Practice with software work out any bug
4. Prep online material for students to use at home November 2017
a. Prepare narrated power point, and videos for
5. Give students access to online material January 2018
a. Prepare classroom material needed for flipping
the classroom January 2018
b. Prepare mini lectures with higher cognitive
c. Work on developing higher level end of the
6. Implementation March 2018
7. Collecting & Analyzing Data March-June 2018
a. Sharing & Reflecting on June 2018
During the action research I developed many resources through my literature review. This was a difficult process to say the least. It is easy to find resources on flipping the classroom but finding any that have been performed in allied health fields much less histology was nearly impossible. This is what I have found.
I’m Not Flipping My Lid, Just the Classroom
EDLD 5315 Assessing Digital Learning and Instruction: Dr. Donna Azodi
To Think or not to Think, that is the question, I would like to integrate technology into the histology student’s curriculum because I believe that this is paramount to their education. What does technology defined in the classroom look like, why do we need to integrate it, and want does it mean to Think a classroom are questions I would like to address? Technology in the classroom can be as simple as integrating the use of polling software during a lesson or as advanced as working with 3D printer printing parts to make a robot. The student of today has every part of their life touched by technology in some way, from the moment the wake until they sleep they have some form of technology touching them. Cell phones, social media, electronic textbooks, shopping online, and video games are just to name a few of the things that have emerged in the last 20 years as the way life is. In late 2014 and early 2015 Pew Research Center conducted a poll that showed that 55% of teens will text their friends every day. (Lenhart) A second poll was given by Pew Research Center and it showed that 83% of teens hung out with friends at school while 55% spent time with friends online of some sort like gaming social media etc. (Lenhart, 2015) Integrating technology into education is a misnomer, if we intend to keep a student’s focus and not only educate but prepare them for the 21st century we have to find new ways to integrate technology into the classroom. Flipping the classroom is one of the ways that educators are integrating technology into the student’s educational path. This technique takes what was traditionally lecturing in the classroom and that becomes work students do at home and then what would have been homework is worked on in class with small groups. Technology is used in the classroom during a short video or electronic lesson in the form of polling software so the instructor can see where the students understanding of the subject lies and where they need to stop, take 5 or 10 minutes to work on that area before moving on. I would like to use this technique it is called Think – Pair – Share. (Think, Pair, Share, 2015)
The why not of integrating technology into the classroom
You may be asking yourself why we should integrate technology into the classroom, it is because of the way it touches students’ lives in every way and will continue through their life that will include technology in many ways. (Wainwright) Technology can give ways for students to interact with each other and connect many different learning styles. Students will need the knowledge of how to utilize technology as this world becomes more technology dependent. Technology in the classroom makes the classroom an environment that students want to be in and want to learn from as well as teaching responsibilities. (Wainwright, 2016)
There are many misconceptions when it comes to using technology in the classroom. Common misconceptions are that technology in the classroom means smartboard, technology will replace me, technology cost too much, it’s too difficult to learn, or we don’t need it if its not broke don’t fix it mentality. (Roopesh, 2014) These all are understandable because they may have been true 25 or 30 years ago, but they are not today. We will have to hire more IT people of be tech experts ourselves, this is not true now with the ability to “Google it”. (Ooi, 2013)
It is quite easy to integrate technology in the classroom, you can gamify you lesson, let students create, or incorporate student input and feedback. (Walsh, 2014) I would like to integrate technology in a course to see if I can improve the student’s registry scores at the end of the school year.
The How to integrate technology into the classroom
Flipping the classroom is a technique that takes the bottom levels of Blooms Taxonomy, like knowledge and comprehension, as at home work for students and then when they get to class they can work on the higher levels of application and analysis. (Brame) Eric Mazur used peer instruction to flip the classroom in a technique called Think-Pair-Share. The first step of this technique is that the students are already prepared for class by watching video lectures or reading the corresponding chapter in the book. (2013) Then the class is structured with mini lectures with questions built in. These questions will make the student take the knowledge they have and apply it to solve problems. (Brame, 2013) When the question is given students use a software like Poll Everywhere and their cell phone to answer the question. In the case that not all students have a cell phone you can group them together to answer, the Pair can start here. Once they answer the software compiles the responses for the educator to see. (Poll Everywhere, 2016) If the incorrect responses are anywhere between 30% or more then the students break into small groups to discuss the question and then they come back after a few minutes and the educator can give feedback to the correct answer. (Brame) If the responses are satisfactory then the instructor can stop and give a group problem to help them work on their analysis or troubleshooting ability. All of this should be in about a 15-minute time span. (2013) The four major parts of flipping the classroom are students have to have a way to expose themselves to the material before class, you have to give them a reason to prepare, the instructor has to have a way to assess the students understanding, and make the in class activities reach a higher level of taxonomy. (Brame, 2013)
Flipping my classroom properly
There are 4 things that I will remember when flipping the classroom.
- Start small, every lecture does not have to be flipped at once.
- Plan with the end in mind. An overall median increase of 50 points on Registry exam score with improvement in each of the 5 subsections.
- Use resources found on the internet, this will give plenty of options when planning the lesson.
- Do what is right for me, figure out what is comfortable and it what is being taught. (Cabral, 2013)
If I have flipped my classroom properly we will have discussions that are led by students and reach the higher levels of Blooms critical thinking levels. The lesson will need to be fluid depending on students’ needs and the lesson should always have real world application. (2012) Students should be able to tutor other students as well as challenge them on the material. Students should develop the ability to explore deeper into the lesson material taking ownership while becoming active listeners. (Bennett, Kern, Gudenrath, McIntosh, 2012)
YouTube is a good resource of videos showing a traditional class and a flipped class in comparison. These examples demonstrate what a flipped classroom looks like. (Palmer, 2013)
These are some quotes from articles written by colleges that have used flipping the classroom technique that show their happiness and success with the change.
“The combined first-time pass rate under the old, traditional learning style program was 83.9 percent, college data show. The combined first-time pass rate for the new program is 96 percent, a more than 12 percentage point increase.” (Smith, 2014)
“Using mixed-methods, we examined learning experiences and perceptions of the flipped classroom model and assessed changes in students’ self-perceived knowledge after participation in the course. We used pre- and post-course surveys to measure changes in self-perceived knowledge. On a scale of 1-5 (1 = lowest rank, 5 = highest rank), the mean overall rating for the 2013 NextGenU/Flipped classroom students were 88.8% compared to 86.4% for traditional students (2011). On a scale course was 4.7/5 compared to prior years’ overall ratings of 3.7 (2012), 4.3 (2011), 4.1 (2010), and 3.9 (2009).” (7th Space Interactive, 2014)
“We performed research at that rural school to compare the effectiveness of the two delivery models of Algebra II/Trigonometry. There was a large enough sample of students to compare in a lecture delivery model and the flipped classroom model. Data was collected during the first term of the 2010-2011 school year (the test group for the flipped learning model consisted of 20 individuals and the test group for the traditional delivery method included 31 students). At the end of second semester the students in the podcasting delivery method had a GPA in their math class of 3.2/4, a B average. The students in the traditional delivery method had a GPA of 2.52/4, a C+ average. The percentage of students in the video podcasting class receiving a grade of A for the second semester was 50% whereas the percentage of students in the traditional class receiving a grade of A for the second semester was 39%.” (Szoka, 2013)
In Conclusion, I believe flipping the classroom using the Flip-Pair-Share method will improve student learning and interaction, evaluation outcomes, and registry exam passage rate.
Wainwright, A. (n.d.). 10 Reasons Today’s Students NEED Technology in the Classroom. Retrieved August 07, 2016, from http://www.securedgenetworks.com/blog/10-Reasons-Today-s-Students-NEED-Technology-in-the-Classroom
Roopesh, S. (2014, November 19). 7 Common Misconceptions About Technology In Education. Retrieved August 07, 2016, from http://www.makkajai.com/blog/7-misconceptions-technology-in-education/
Brame, C. J. (2013). Center for Teaching. Retrieved August 06, 2016, from https://cft.vanderbilt.edu/guides-sub-pages/Thinkping-the-classroom/
Bennett, B., Kern, J., Gudenrath, A., & McIntosh, P. (2012, May 3). The Daily Riff – BE SMARTER. ABOUT EDUCATION. Retrieved August 06, 2016, from http://www.thedailyriff.com/articles/the-Thinkped-class-what-does-a-good-one-look-like-692.php
Cabral, K. (2013, December 12). Thinkped Classroom Strategies to Support Student Learning. Retrieved August 7, 2016, from http://www.scholastic.com/teachers/top-teaching/2013/12/Thinkped-classroom-strategies-support-student-learning
Palmer, T. (2013, October 16). Showing the Differences between a Traditional and a Thinkped Classroom. Retrieved August 06, 2016, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yzMFdDT6FSA
Lenhart, A. (2015, August 06). Teens, Technology and Friendships. Retrieved August 12, 2016, from http://www.pewinternet.org/2015/08/06/teens-technology-and-friendships/
Think Pair Share. (2015). Retrieved August 12, 2016, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lwSQz6njhPI
Ooi, L. (2013, January 15). Misconceptions of Teaching with Technology. Retrieved August 12, 2016, from http://www.colourmylearning.com/2013/01/misconceptions-teaching-with-tech/
Walsh, K. (2014, October 5). Awesome Free Ed Tech Resources eBook! Retrieved August 12, 2016, from http://www.emergingedtech.com/2014/10/technology-create-lessons-that-arent-boring/
Poll Everywhere. (n.d.). Retrieved August 12, 2016, from http://www.polleverywhere.com/
Smith, C. (2014, October 7). Spartan College sees results with curriculum overhaul. Retrieved August 12, 2016, from http://www.tulsaworld.com/businesshomepage1/spartan-college-sees-results-with-curriculum-overhaul/article_63bb830b-4c4e-5a19-ac74-aaf722385311.html
7th Space Interactive. (2014, August 29). Retrieved August 12, 2016, from http://7thspace.com/headlines/481680/a_novel_integration_of_online_and_flipped_classroom_instructional_models_in_public_health_higher_education.html
Szoka, J. (2013, May 12). Retrieved August 12, 2016, from http://www.emergingedtech.com/2013/05/measured-results-demonstrate-enhanced-learning-outcomes-in-the-flipped-classroom/