Literature Review for Integrating Technology

To Think or not to Think, that is the question, I would like to integrate technology into the histology student’s curriculum because I believe that this is paramount to their education. What does technology defined in the classroom look like, why do we need to integrate it, and want does it mean to Think a classroom are questions I would like to address? Technology in the classroom can be as simple as integrating the use of polling software during a lesson or as advanced as working with 3D printer printing parts to make a robot. The student of today has every part of their life touched by technology in some way, from the moment the wake until they sleep they have some form of technology touching them. Cell phones, social media, electronic textbooks, shopping online, and video games are just to name a few of the things that have emerged in the last 20 years as the way life is. In late 2014 and early 2015 Pew Research Center conducted a poll that showed that 55% of teens will text their friends every day. (Lenhart) A second poll was given by Pew Research Center and it showed that 83% of teens hung out with friends at school while 55% spent time with friends online of some sort like gaming social media etc. (Lenhart, 2015) Integrating technology into education is a misnomer, if we intend to keep a student’s focus and not only educate but prepare them for the 21st century we have to find new ways to integrate technology into the classroom. Flipping the classroom is one of the ways that educators are integrating technology into the student’s educational path. This technique takes what was traditionally lecturing in the classroom and that becomes work students do at home and then what would have been homework is worked on in class with small groups. Technology is used in the classroom during a short video or electronic lesson in the form of polling software so the instructor can see where the students understanding of the subject lies and where they need to stop, take 5 or 10 minutes to work on that area before moving on. I would like to use this technique it is called Think – Pair – Share. (Think, Pair, Share, 2015)

The why not of integrating technology into the classroom

You may be asking yourself why we should integrate technology into the classroom, it is because of the way it touches students lives in every way and will continue through their life that will include technology in many ways. (Wainwright) Technology can give ways for students to interact with each other and connect many different learning styles. Students will need the knowledge of how to utilize technology as this world becomes more technology dependent. Technology in the classroom makes the classroom an environment that students want to be in and want to learn from as well as teaching responsibilities. (Wainwright, 2016)

There are many misconceptions when it comes to using technology in the classroom. Common misconceptions are that technology in the classroom means smartboard, technology will replace me, technology cost too much, it’s too difficult to learn, or we don’t need it if its not broke don’t fix it mentality. (Roopesh, 2014) These all are understandable because they may have been true 25 or 30 years ago, but they are not today. We will have to hire more IT people of be tech experts ourselves, this is not true now with the ability to “Google it”. (Ooi, 2013)

It is quite easy to integrate technology in the classroom, you can gamify you lesson, let students create, or incorporate student input and feedback. (Walsh, 2014) I would like to integrate technology in a course to see if I can improve the student’s registry scores at the end of the school year.

The How to integrate technology into the classroom

Flipping the classroom is a technique that takes the bottom levels of Blooms Taxonomy, like knowledge and comprehension, as at home work for students and then when they get to class they can work on the higher levels of application and analysis. (Brame) Eric Mazur used peer instruction to flip the classroom in a technique called Think-Pair-Share. The first step of this technique is that the students are already prepared for class by watching video lectures or reading the corresponding chapter in the book. (2013) Then the class is structured with mini lectures with questions built in. These questions will make the student take the knowledge they have and apply it to solve problems. (Brame, 2013) When the question is given students use a software like Poll Everywhere and their cell phone to answer the question. In the case that not all students have a cell phone you can group them together to answer, the Pair can start here. Once they answer the software compiles the responses for the educator to see. (Poll Everywhere, 2016) If the incorrect responses are anywhere between 30% or more then the students break into small groups to discuss the question and then they come back after a few minutes and the educator can give feedback to the correct answer. (Brame) If the responses are satisfactory then the instructor can stop and give a group problem to help them work on their analysis or troubleshooting ability. All of this should be in about a 15-minute time span. (2013) The four major parts of flipping the classroom are students have to have a way to expose themselves to the material before class, you have to give them a reason to prepare, the instructor has to have a way to assess the students understanding, and make the in class activities reach a higher level of taxonomy. (Brame, 2013)

Am I Flipping my classroom properly

There are 4 things that I will remember when flipping the classroom.

  1. I will want to start small, you do not want to take every lecture you have and flip them all at once.
  2. I want to plan with the end in mind. I want to see an overall median increase of 50 points on Registry exam score with improvement in each of the 5 subsections.
  3. Third I will use resources found on the internet, this will give me plenty of options when planning your lesson.
  4. I want to do what is right for me, that means figure out what is comfortable for me and what I am teaching. (Cabral, 2013)

If I have flipped my classroom properly we will have discussions that are led by students and reach the higher levels of Blooms critical thinking levels. The lesson will need to be fluid depending on students’ needs and the lesson should always have real world application. (2012) Students should be able to tutor other students as well as challenge them on the material. Students should develop the ability to explore deeper into the lesson material taking ownership while becoming active listeners. (Bennett, Kern, Gudenrath, McIntosh, 2012)

YouTube is a good resource of videos showing a traditional class and a flipped class in comparison. These examples demonstrate what a flipped classroom looks like. (Palmer, 2013)

These are some quotes from articles written by colleges that have used flipping the classroom technique that show their happiness and success with the change.

“The combined first-time pass rate under the old, traditional learning style program was 83.9 percent, college data show. The combined first-time pass rate for the new program is 96 percent, a more than 12 percentage point increase.” (Smith, 2014)

“Using mixed-methods, we examined learning experiences and perceptions of the flipped classroom model and assessed changes in students’ self-perceived knowledge after participation in the course. We used pre- and post-course surveys to measure changes in self-perceived knowledge. On a scale of 1-5 (1 = lowest rank, 5 = highest rank), the mean overall rating for the 2013 NextGenU/Flipped classroom students were 88.8% compared to 86.4% for traditional students (2011). On a scale course was 4.7/5 compared to prior years’ overall ratings of 3.7 (2012), 4.3 (2011), 4.1 (2010), and 3.9 (2009).” (7th Space Interactive, 2014)

“We performed research at that rural school to compare the effectiveness of the two delivery models of Algebra II/Trigonometry.  There was a large enough sample of students to compare in a lecture delivery model and the flipped classroom model.   Data was collected during the first term of the 2010-2011 school year (the test group for the flipped learning model consisted of 20 individuals and the test group for the traditional delivery method included 31 students).  At the end of second semester the students in the podcasting delivery method had a GPA in their math class of 3.2/4, a B average.  The students in the traditional delivery method had a GPA of 2.52/4, a  C+ average.  The percentage of students in the video podcasting class receiving a grade of A for the second semester was 50% whereas the percentage of students in the traditional class receiving a grade of A for the second semester was 39%.” (Szoka, 2013)

In Conclusion, I believe flipping the classroom using the Flip-Pair-Share method will improve student learning and interaction, evaluation outcomes, and registry exam passage rate.


Wainwright, A. (n.d.). 10 Reasons Today’s Students NEED Technology in the Classroom. Retrieved August 07, 2016, from

Roopesh, S. (2014, November 19). 7 Common Misconceptions About Technology In Education. Retrieved August 07, 2016, from


Brame, C. J. (2013). Center for Teaching. Retrieved August 06, 2016, from

Bennett, B., Kern, J., Gudenrath, A., & McIntosh, P. (2012, May 3). The Daily Riff – BE SMARTER. ABOUT EDUCATION. Retrieved August 06, 2016, from

Cabral, K. (2013, December 12). Thinkped Classroom Strategies to Support Student Learning. Retrieved August 7, 2016, from

Palmer, T. (2013, October 16). Showing the Differences between a Traditional and a Thinkped Classroom. Retrieved August 06, 2016, from

Lenhart, A. (2015, August 06). Teens, Technology and Friendships. Retrieved August 12, 2016, from

Think Pair Share. (2015). Retrieved August 12, 2016, from

Ooi, L. (2013, January 15). Misconceptions of Teaching with Technology. Retrieved August 12, 2016, from

Walsh, K. (2014, October 5). Awesome Free Ed Tech Resources eBook! Retrieved August 12, 2016, from

Poll Everywhere. (n.d.). Retrieved August 12, 2016, from

Smith, C. (2014, October 7). Spartan College sees results with curriculum overhaul. Retrieved August 12, 2016, from

7th Space Interactive. (2014, August 29). Retrieved August 12, 2016, from